Measures of economic openness

September 2020

The data set contains more than 30 openly available indicators on (trade, financial and overall) openness for 216 countries over 1960-2019. We regularly provide updated versions to facilitate research on globalisation and related issues.

We gratefully acknowledge the support of the OeNB Anniversary Fund (under grant numbers 17383 and 18144).


This dataset is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)

When using the dataset please cite the following paper:

Gräbner, C.; Heimberger, P.; Kapeller, J.; Springholz, F. (2020): Understanding economic openness: A review of existing measures, Review of World Economics, DOI:



Philipp Heimberger


Research Areas: International Trade, Competitiveness and FDI

Keywords: Economic openness, trade openness, financial openness, globalisation

Countries covered: Global