Navigating Trade Restrictions


Vasily Astrov, Carsten Brockhaus, Julian Hinz, Levke Jessen-Thiesen, Hendrik Mahlkow and Patrik Svab

Russia Monitor No. 3, February 2024
17 pages including 5 Figures

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This report focuses on Russia's adaptation in its commodity exports during 2023, amidst ongoing international sanctions. It examines the shifts in export and maritime shipping patterns, emphasizing coal, crude oil, and liquefied natural gas, and their redirection towards alternative, non-sanctioning markets. The analysis details Russia's efforts to maintain its commodity exports by leveraging new maritime routes and — possibly — spoofing Automatic Identification System (AIS) signals to avoid detection of ship-to-ship transfers of oil.


Keywords: commodity exports, maritime shipping, ship-to-ship oil transfers

JEL classification: F14, F51, Q4

Countries covered: Russia

Research Areas: Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy, International Trade, Competitiveness and FDI

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