Background paper contribution for the Industrial Development Report 2020 'The Future of Industrialization'

Client/Funding Institution



There is a general expectation that the global economy is currently facing a new wave of technological change – Industry 4.0 – that is based on digitalisation and information and communication technologies (ICT) such as artificial intelligence, additive manufacturing and blockchain. As a background paper to UNIDO Industrial Development Report 2020, this project initially analyses the impact of total factor productivity (TFP) growth (i.e. a measure on technological progress) on employment, labour share, and value added growth of industries in emerging and transition countries. The analysis will take in to account the direct industry-own effects in addition to indirect impact across both national and international backward and forward linkages. Furthermore, wiiw analyses the corresponding impacts on employment, the labour share, and value added that arise from introduction of industrial robots, a prominent phenomenon in Industry 4.0.


November 2018 - March 2019

wiiw team Leader

Mahdi Ghodsi

wiiw Staff

Mahdi Ghodsi, Magdalena Höllhuber, Oliver Reiter, Robert Stehrer, Roman Stöllinger


External Publications

UNIDO Industrial Development Report 2020

Keywords: UNIDO, industrial development report, technological change, digitalisation, information and communication technologies, ICT, artificial intelligence, additive manufacturing, blockchain, total factor productivity, robots

Countries covered: Brazil, Bulgaria, China, India, Indonesia, Romania, Russia, Turkey

Research Areas: Sectoral studies